Up Next in 19th Century
Napoleon's Great Blunder: Spain 1808
In 1808, Napoleon's rivalry with Britain led to an ill-fated intervention in Portugal and Spain, that sparked a nationalist revolt against the French. At Bailén Napoleon's Empire suffered its first major defeat, and though Napoleon himself then arrived in Spain to reassert French military dominan...
Napoleon Defeated: Aspern 1809
In 1809, with Napoleon and his best troops bogged down in Spain, Austria decided to try to get revenge for her humiliation at Austerlitz three years before. Archduke Charles led an invasion of France's ally Bavaria, but Napoleon raised fresh troops and transformed the strategic situation in four ...
The History of the Magic Lantern
Developed in the 17th century, the magic lantern allowed people to experience movie-like entertainment hundreds of years before cinema or photography existed.
Christiaan Huygens, a Dutch astronomer, mathematician, and physicist in the 1650s, is credited with the invention of the magic lantern. H...